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## To demonstrate, or not to demonstrate?

As the atomic bomb was becoming a technological reality, there were many scientists on the Manhattan Projectwho found themselves wondering about both the ethics and politics of a surprise, unwarned nuclear attack on a city. Many of them, even at very high levels, wondered about whether the very threat of the bomb, properly displayed, might be enough, without the loss of life that would come with a military attack.

The Franck Report , written in June 1945 by scientists working at the University of Chicago Metallurgical laboratory, put it perhaps most eloquently:

the way in which nuclear weapons, now secretly developed in this country, will first be revealed to the world appears of great, perhaps fateful importance. …It will be very difficult to persuade the world that a nation which was capable of secretly preparing and suddenly releasing a weapon, as indiscriminate as the rocket bomb and a thousand times more destructive, is to be trusted in its proclaimed desire of having such weapons abolished by international agreement….

From this point of view a demonstration of the new weapon may best be made before the eyes of representatives of all United Nations, on the desert or a barren island. The best possible atmosphere for the achievement of an international agreement could be achieved if America would be able to say to the world, “You see what weapon we had but did not use. We are ready to renounce its use in the future and to join other nations in working out adequate supervision of the use of this nuclear weapon.”

They even went so far as to suggest, in a line that was Skechers USA Upgrades Sailin Womens 6XbKckhe0
totally etched out of thehistorical record by the Manhattan Project censors, that “We fear its early unannounced use might cause other nations to regard us as a nascent Germany.”

The evolution of the “Trinity” test fireball, at constant scale, with the Empire State Building for additional scale reference.

The idea of a “demonstration” was for many scientists a compelling one, and news of the ideaspread to the various project sites. The idea would be to let the Japanese know what awaited them if they did not surrender. This would be more than just a verbal or textual warning, which could be disregarded as propaganda — they would set the bomb off somewhere where casualties would be low or minimal, but its nature easy to verify. If the demonstration did not work, if the Japanese were not receptive, then the bomb could be used as before. In the eyes of these scientists, there would be no serious loss to do it this way, and perhaps much to gain.

Of course, not all scientists saw it this way. In his cover letter forwarding the Franck Report to the Secretary of War, the physicist Arthur Compton, head of the Chicago laboratory, noted his own doubts: 1. if it didn’t work, it would be prolonging the war, which would cost lives; and 2. “without a military demonstration it may be impossible to impress the world with the need for national sacrifices in order to gain lasting security.” This last line is the more interesting one in my eyes: Compton saw dropping the bomb on a city as a form of “demonstration,” a “military demonstration,” and thought that taking a lot of life now would be necessary to scare the world into banning these weapons in the future. This view, that the bombs were something more than just weapons, butvisual arguments, comes across in otherscientists’ discussions of targeting questions as well .

Alexandria, which had been a city of prosperity and learning, became an arena of religious contention between the new faith of the Christians and the old faith of the pagan majority. The Christians increasingly felt bold enough to strike at the symbols of the old faith in an attempt to topple it. Magasarian writes,

It is not so much religion that makes the character of a people, as it is the people who determine the character of their religion. Religion is only the resume of the national ideas, thoughts, and character. Religion is nothing but an expression. It is not, for instance, the word or the language which creates the idea, but the idea which provokes the word into existence. In the same way religion is only the expression of a people's mentality. And yet a man's religion or philosophy, while it is but the product of his own mind, exerts a reflex influence upon his character. The child influences the parent, of whom it is the offspring; language affects thought, of which, originally, it was but the tool. So it is with religion. The Christian religion, as soon as it got into power, turned the world about.

Perhaps nowhere more than in Alexandria was this turn-about more apparent. Under the reign of Theodosius I (347-395 CE) paganism was outlawed and Christianity encouraged. In 391 CE the Christian Patriarch Theophilus followed Theodosius’ lead and had all the pagan temples in Alexandria destroyed or converted into churches. By the year 400 CE Alexandria was in constant religious turmoil and, in 415 CE, this resulted in the murder of the Neo-Platonic philosopher Hypatia and, according to some scholars, the burning of the great library and the complete destruction of the temple of Serapis. Alexandria declined rapidly after this date with scholars, scientists, and thinkers of all disciplines leaving the city for safer locales.

The city became steadily impoverished after the rise of Christianity, both financially and culturally, and became increasingly a battlefield for warring faiths. It was conquered by the Timberland Field Boot Icon WP Mens LbrxgU
Persians in 619 CE. The Christian Byzantine Empire under Remonte Malea 17 Womens Kuc54
re-claimed the city in 628 CE but lost it to the invading Arab Muslims under Caliph Umar in 641 CE. The forces of the Christian Byzantines and the Muslim Arabs thenfought for control of the city, and Egypt, until the Arabian forces prevailed in 646 CE and Egypt fell under Islamic rule. The churches werenow destroyed or transformed in mosques and Christian legend claims that it was at this time that the great library was burned by the Muslimconquerors.

What was not destroyed by war was taken down by nature and, by 1323 CE, most of Ptolemaic Alexandria was gone. The great lighthouse was steadily destroyed by earthquakes as was much of the port. In 1994 CE the first discoveries were made known of a number of relics, statuary, and buildingsin the harbor of Alexandria. These have been steadily excavated by Professor Jean-Yves Empereur and his team who continue to bring to light the lost golden age of Alexandria.

One of the greatest motivating forces for Donald Knuth when he began developing the original TeX system was to create something that allowed simple construction of mathematical formulae, while looking professional when printed. The fact that he succeeded was most probably why TeX (and later on, LaTeX) became so popular within the scientific community. Typesetting mathematics is one of LaTeX's greatest strengths. It is also a large topic due to the existence of so much mathematical notation.

If your document requires only a few simple mathematical formulas, plain LaTeX has most of the tools that you will need. If you are writing a scientific document that contains numerous complicated formulas, the amsmath package [1] introduces several new commands that are more powerful and flexible than the ones provided by basic LaTeX. The mathtools package fixes some amsmath quirks and adds some useful settings, symbols, and environments to amsmath. [2] To use either package, include:

in the preamble of the document. The mathtools package loads the amsmath package and hence there is no need to  \usepackage{amsmath}  in the preamble if mathtools is used.

## Contents

LaTeX needs to know when text is mathematical. This is because LaTeX typesets maths notation differently from normal text. Therefore, special environments have been declared for this purpose. They can be distinguished into two categories depending on how they are presented:

As math requires special environments, there are naturally the appropriate environment names you can use in the standard way. Unlike most other environments, however, there are some handy shorthands to declaring your formulas. The following table summarizes them:

Suggestion : Using the  $$...$$  should be avoided, as it may cause problems, particularly with the AMS-LaTeX macros. Furthermore, should a problem occur, the error messages may not be helpful.

The  equation*  and  displaymath  environments are functionally equivalent.

If you are typing text normally, you are said to be in text mode , but while you are typing within one of those mathematical environments, you are said to be in math mode , that has some differences compared to the text mode :

In order for some operators, such as  \lim  or  \sum  to be displayed correctly inside some math environments (read  $......$  ), it might be convenient to write the  \displaystyle  class inside the environment. Doing so might cause the line to be taller, but will cause exponents and indices to be displayed correctly for some math operators. For example, the  $\sum$  will print a smaller Σ and  $\displaystyle \sum$  will print a bigger one $\sum$ , like in equations (This only works with AMSMATH package). It is possible to force this behaviour for all math environments by declaring  \everymath { \displaystyle }  at the very beginning (i.e. before  \begin { document }  ).

This module saves you (and others!) time in three ways:

No configuration. Automatically format code. Catch style issues programmer errors early.

No decisions to make. No  .eslintrc  ,  .jshintrc  , or  .jscsrc  files to manage. It just works.

Install with:

2 spaces Single quotes for strings No unused variables No semicolons Space after keywords Space after function name

To get a better idea, take a look at a sample file written in JavaScript Standard Style. Or, check out one of the Sorel Snow Commander Boys InfantToddler O2f8LH
that use  standard  !

The easiest way to use JavaScript Standard Style is to install it globally as a Node command line program. Run the following command in Terminal:

Or, you can install  standard  locally, for use in a single project:

Note: To run the preceding commands, Node.js and must be installed.

After you've installed  standard  , you should be able to use the  standard  program. The simplest use case would be checking the style of all JavaScript files in the current working directory:

You can optionally pass in a directory (or directories) using the glob pattern. Be sure to quote paths containing glob patterns so that they are expanded by  standard  instead of your shell:

Note: by default  standard  will look for all files matching the patterns:  **/*.js  ,  **/*.jsx  .

The beauty of JavaScript Standard Style is that it's simple. No one wants to maintain multiple hundred-line style configuration files for every module/project they work on. Enough of this madness!

Adopting  standard  style means ranking the importance of code clarity and community conventions higher than personal style. This might not make sense for 100% of projects and development cultures, however open source can be a hostile place for newbies. Setting up clear, automated contributor expectations makes a project healthier.

For more info, see the conference talk "Write Perfect Code with Standard and ESLint" . In this talk, you'll learn about linting, when to use  standard  versus  eslint  , and how  prettier  compares to  standard  .

Lots of folks!

In addition to companies, many community members use  standard  on packages that are too numerous to list here.

 standard  is also the top-starred linter in GitHub's Clean Code Linter showcase.

First, install  standard  . Then, install the appropriate plugin for your editor:

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